I recently moved to the middle east and live in a six-story apartment building.
There is a sliding door going outside, but "outside" is more like a small room, with a large window on the end. There is no pane in this window, and it's bigger than a door, so you could totally jump out.
We don't use it, except maybe to sit out in the nighttime and have a smoke.
It's definitely a kind of outdoor living space, but it has four walls and a ceiling. The walls are made of the same stuff that is on the outside of the building, a kind of adobe or concrete. The floor is tiled. Everyone below us has one of these "rooms" too, and so it does not project from the building at all. Also there is no rail.
What is this area called?
I'd like to say terrace, porch, patio.
I would think a "veranda" is runs along the side of a building, but this is like a room, off the spare bedroom.
Dictionary.com says that a "balcony" is "a platform that projects from the wall of a building and is surrounded by a railing."
In our building everyone below us has one of these "rooms" too, and so it doesn not project from the building at all. Also there is no rail.
It's definitely not a sunroom.
Is a porch always an entrance? Could it be a porch?
Can a patio have a roof?
Does a terrace have to extend off the side of the buidling?