Now then there was in Germany in the 18th or 19th Century something of a backlash against textual criticism. During this period a German priest or scholar (not sure which) decided to create a literary hoax. He claimed that he had found in the basement of a church a partial manuscript, but that several pages were lost to fire and other misfortunes. This manuscript was an eyewitness account of a group of villagers during the 30 Years War. When he published he wrote that he had interpolated his own material where the manuscript was lost, but he was sure that the art of textual criticism had advanced to such a level that a trained eye would not be fooled.
Given how much data I have I am amazed that I couldn't find it in google. So please, name of the guy and the time?