I've google IED, 18th century 1ED, 19th century IED. I went on Ask.com and asked "How do you make an IED? 19th c. IED What did they use for bombs in the 1800s?" Too many of the chemicals and devices used were present day.
ETA: The device would have to be thrown, or hurled, but not by anything as large as a catapult. Like a Molotov cocktail.
ETA Part Two: THANK YOU, EVERYBODY! I so appreciate the intelligence and perspicacity I find in this community. The [awesome answers] tag seems to have disappeared.