Historical Atlantic hurricane data resource, 1852 - present
I've been using this site for a few years to monitor current storms, and it finally occurred to me to find out how far back their data goes. You can observe recorded tracks of tropical storms and hurricanes back to 1852! At some point (by the time of Hurricane Carla, 1961) there are narrative "storm lifecycle" summaries. I haven't yet pinpointed the earliest of these.
Caveat -- I do not know exactly where their pre-National Hurricane Center data comes from, so checking for a second source would be advisable once you find a storm that suits your story if it requires that degree of accuracy. The URL below will give you an example.