I'm here once again asking for help with my story. I've gotten to the strictly military part. It's set in a fantasy kingdom somewhere in the 1800-1850 era, European/English. They use rifles and single-shot pistols.
My question concerns cannonballs. When did the rifling of cannonballs become commonplace? Was it before or after this? I'd like my hero to know the answer, since he's from the present. Also, does the barrel of the cannon needed to be rifled as well? How long would this take? I'm assuming gunsmiths would perform the task. This is for the rebel army, not the royal army, who wouldn't have rifled cannonballs.
Googled: cannonballs, types of cannonballs, round shot cannonballs*, rifling of cannonballs, rifling of firearms.
Also, a documentary I watched about a battle (either Culloden or the French Revolution, can't remember) mentioned round-shot cannonballs as cannonballs that would explode and spray fragments. However, looking up "round shot cannonballs" only revealed a few entries on round shot as applied to many kinds of firearms prior to the introduction of bullets.
ETA: I've been out of town. thank you so much for the answers! I was hoping to think of some modern military device to be introduced to the conflict by the main character, who is from thepresent Rifling seemed like a good idea. Oh, well.