September 11th, 2013

Different strengths / styles of colonial imperialism?

The short version: I'm looking for information on functional differences between the colonization styles of different nations during the Age of Discovery / Age of Imperialism. (Or differences in one country's practices over time.)

(This is for a board game rather than a novel, and many apologies if that disqualifies the inquiry, but I do rather want to get the details right - even if it's the players who finalize the events of the story. A friend pointed me at this community as a possible place to get answers.)

The long version, and searches/sources already checkedCollapse )

Time periods surrounding the midnight sun [answered]

I am writing a story set in the North near the Arctic Circle (anywhere on the planet, as this is an alternate Earth). The question concerns the natural phenomenon of the midnight sun in general.

I’ve researched “Midnight Sun” “Summer Solstice” “Arctic Circle” etc (which yielded the very interesting fact that living above the arctic circle means you don’t have to mow your lawn as much and references to a Stephenie Meyer book. Which probably just means that I’m terrible at research.)

I also found a lot of information about the midnight sun itself, as in where and when, but my question is really what happens just before or just after? How do you get from permanent light to permanent dark in practical terms? I understand that the midnight sun isn’t just one day but rather a longer period of time? Is there ever a time when there is an extremely short night? How long would the shortest one last? I can’t imagine how it works. The sun dips behind the horizon and then comes back up soon after. Is it actually dark during that time or more of a twilight? And how far away would the earliest point in time be for a night like that in relation to the solstice?

This is my first time posting here. I hope my post and tagging is okay. I’m sorry if the question isn’t very clear. That's probably the reason why I couldn’t solve it with an internet search. Any help would be appreciated.

Thank you.

ETA: Thank you all so much for your very detailed and helpful, not to mention fast, responses. This was exactly what I was looking for. I can't thank you enough. It is very much appreciated.