October 15th, 2009

What did people call "afternoon" before "noon" became a word?

Googled: ancient timekeeping, telling time without clocks

Before clocks (and noon) were invented, what did folks call afternoon?

I have dawn, morning, mid-morning, mid-day, sunset, evening, twilight, night, midnight, dead of night, but I can't seem to find a "non-noon" word for afternoon. The sites I've looked at mention candlemarks and how certain cultures marked "hours" by the movement of the sun, but they don't really mention what people called the time between mid-day and evening.

Can anyone help?


To clarify: This is a hunter-gatherer culture with no clocks, so no "hours" (no candles, either, so no "candlemarks"). I'm concerned with using "noon" or "afternoon"---it would sound like an anachronism for this world.

Mid-day has the same definition as noon---"middle of the day"---so I don't think that would work for afternoon.

Thanks to all who commented. It seems there isn't a "non-noon" equivalent to afternoon that is a one word reference, like mid-morning or mid-day. At least I now know that for sure---I appreciate the help!

Axis referring to Allies, communication at end of WWII

In my WWII novel I have an SS officer briefly discuss his brother, who was killed in December 1944 during the Ardennes Offensive (the Battle of the Bulge).

Which made me realize (and I thought I'd asked this, but nothing's coming up when I search gmail, so I guess I didn't) that I have no idea: how would the Nazis have referred to the Allies?

At that stage of the war, would the family have been notified of the guy's death, and if so, how long would it likely have taken? Family lives near Berlin.

I need the family to know he's dead, so if necessary I can move him into an earlier battle. In other words, the significant part is that he's dead and they know about it, not that he died in any particular offensive, but I'd like it to be as close to the end of the war as possible.


Modern Day Junkie Withdrawal

My story is set in the modern day and the character has been sustaining himself on a diet consisting of liquor and amphetimines. Occasional meals here and there. It's long term, habitual use. He's in his thirties and his body has definitely sustained wear and tear from the lifestyle. I'd class him as a functioning addict.

I've looked eorwid and wiki for how amphetimines effect the body and the withdrawal symptoms. But what I'm looking for is the order of physical symptoms from most likely to pronounce to least likely. How quickly they'd start appearing after missing his fix and how, if at all, alcohol consumption would help?

This is my first time - be gentle.
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