A very rich French nobleman with an estate in Alsace dies unmarried, leaving no children, no surviving parents, no brothers, and two surviving sisters.
Questions 1) How much of his property, movable and immovable, can he alienate?
2) Less important, but I'm curious. My character is a count. He inherited the title from his father, who was made a count for services to the King, and who left no other surviving male descendants (only two childless daughters). What happens to the title? Does it die out, or does it revert to some cousin somewhere? If the latter, does that affect the cousin's claim to the estate?
Research Google search terms: entailment, france entailment, france law entailment, ordonnance concernant les substitutions 1747, ordinance of 1731 on gifts, ordinance of 1735 on wills, france provinces roman law customary law, alsace customary law, alsace inheritance law, alsace inheritance law ancien regime, quotité disponible, acquêts et propres, acquets inheritance, pays coutumiers, coutume de Paris, quotité disponible childless, succession célibataire, réserve héréditaire et succession célibataire.
JSTOR articles: "Rules of Inheritance and Strategies of Mobility in Prerevolutionary France", "The Local Law of Alsace-Lorraine: A Half Century of Survival".
Google books: Studies of Family Life: A Contribution to Social Science, Inheritance in Nineteenth-century French Culture: Wealth, Knowledge and the Family, Is Inheritance Legitimate?: Ethical and Economic Aspects of Wealth Transfers, Catalogue of Books on Foreign Law: Founded on the Collection Presented by Charles Purton Cooper, Esq., to the Society of Lincoln's Inn. Laws and Jurisprudence of France., The Law Times Reports, Volume 42, Commentaries on American Law, Volume 4, Inherited Wealth, Democracy in America: And Two Essays on America (de Tocqueville).
I've discovered that Alsace was one of the pays coutumiers, and furthermore that its own coutume and not that of Paris applied in the 18th century. I've discovered that the Coutume de Paris distinguished between a réserve héréditaire, which designated a portion of the inheritance that had to be inherited by descendants, ancestors, or collateral relatives, and the quotité disponible, the portion the testator could alienate.
I've discovered that in the 18th century, entailments were allowed in some of the pays coutumiers, but with limitations on the number of generations (in some cases, only 2 generations could bound by an entailment), and that the Civil Code did away with entailments. I learned a lot about how the Civil Code overhauled inheritance law. I learned a lot about the reincorporation of Alsace into France after 1919 and which parts of the local law were kept, even where they contradicted French law.
I've read de Tocqueville comparing American inheritance law to French (Civil Code) inheritance law, which is after my period. I've learned a lot about making up your will in France today, which is way after my period. I found Voltaire describing the exact problem of my period, which is that when you travel through 18th century France, you change legal systems as often as you change your horse!
It's been a very educational evening. But what I can't find is the specific law governing the disposition of the movable wealth and estate by unmarried childless noblemen in Alsace in the 18th century. Help?
I have a new character in one of my books who is deaf due to a completely non-functional auditory nerve as the result of a family curse.
Having read up on this kind of hearing loss on Wikipedia and several other websites, I now have a question. So it says in the research I've done that side effects are vertigo, dizziness, nausea, and balance issues. Problem is, given the context in the research, they're likely talking about the most statistically significant cause, which is gradual damage to the auditory nerve. I can't find anything that answers the following question:
If someone is born with an already non-functional auditory nerve, do they still have dizziness, vertigo, nausea, and balance issues?
Query: I need a clinical psychiatric diagnosis for a person presenting as follows; recurring nightmares of falling causing interrupted sleep, the fear that he isn’t real but might be someone else’s dream, extreme sleep deprivation, night terrors. The individual is terrified of falling asleep, and has the same dream every time he does. He refuses to take any kind of sleep aid. No family history of mental illness, no recreational drug use, no family history of cerebral cancer, no traumatic head injury. The patient is intelligent and otherwise rational, but is very afraid of what will happen to him when whatever is dreaming him ends. Patient has not had an EEG or an MRI or CAT scan, but these will show no anomalies.
What I’m looking for is how a psychiatric health professional would describe this person in his notes. Any help would be gratefully received!
Searches: I’ve researched a variety of sleep disorders, including night terrors, sleep paralysis, REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder. I’ve looked at psychological disorders involving a sense of unreality (dissociative disorders), but without knowing the clinical language I’m stuck.
I'm currently working on a short story set in NYC, about a young twenty-something man who looks back on his relationship with a French girl over the course of a summer. The title and story itself plays around with the concept of the word été, which means both "summer" and "was." What I need help with most is how one would the phrase "The Summer That Was" be put in French?
According to Google, the French language has two tenses for describing things in the past: imparfait, which is used to describe something that lasts a while; and the passé composé, which describes something that was brief and now over. For the verb to be, the imparfait would beétait; the passé composé would be a été.
The first thing I did, using my very elementary French skills, was try out my own literal translation of "The Summer That Was": L'été que a été, which Google said correct, but also gave me L'été qui a été. After a couple of tries, it also gave me L'été qui était, and L'été c'était... I was also somehow -- don't quite remember how I got to it -- led to L'été que avait été, which translates to "The Summer that Had Been," but which loses the poetry I feel "The Summer That Was" has.
So, my problem is: which is the more grammatically-, or even colloquially-, correct to say in French? If any French speakers out there can help, I'd really appreciate it!
Hello! I'm working on a Steve/Bucky modern AU fic, and am wondering if anyone can help me with a few insults. Bucky grew up in Brooklyn Heights and currently lives in Red Hook. What might he say about Bed-Stuy? Just some good-natured, common kind of stuff, that 'my neighborhood is better than yours' kind of thing people do.
I've googled 'what bad things to people say about Bed-Stuy' and variations on that theme and just get reams of crime statistics. 'Insults/neighborhood rivalry all that kind of thing gets me nowhere.
(PS - is the Dreamwidth of this community totally blank or am I just not seeing anything due to some weird quirk?)
Hi! So, I am writing some historical fiction, and I am drowning in research, but it's been a few days and I still haven't found a good solution to this problem, and you guys are consistently awesome about helping find answers to questions like this, so I thought I'd come to you.
Setting: Early-18th century (the year isn't strictly important, but I've been using 1715 anytime I need a year in my searches to keep things consistent) pirate ship in the Caribbean. Scenario: My protagonist is a Royal Navy officer in his late twenties who is taken by pirates. Pirates are being relatively chill, just asking that he do some work while on board and not make a fuss until they find a good place to cut him loose. I need him to sustain a semi-serious injury to his hand doing something routine on the boat that does not involve weapons. I need the injury to be serious enough that he worries about losing his hand without treatment, but not so bad that he can't recover from it with intervention from a surgeon, and I need it to be something he can hide for a couple days. I have been considering burns, either rope burns from dealing with the rigging or heat burns from dealing with tar, but I'm not sure this is serious enough for him to worry about losing his hand. Searches: I have done a lot of searches on Google and boat forums on things like, "wooden boat maintenance" and "how you can hurt yourself on a wooden boat," but these are mostly giving me modern solutions to keeping your small, seasonal watercraft from rotting. I've also searched things like, "pirate ship maintenance," "pirate ship jobs," and "pirate ship injuries," both on Google and in some pirate and Age of Sail specific blogs and archives, and I'm mostly getting ways you can be hurt in battle. I also went through the age of sail and injury to order tags in this comm.
I'm working on a piece of writing about Gustave Flaubert*. For most of his life he lived in Croisset, in a house his father purchased. The Flauberts were well-to-do, so this would have been a fairly nice house (but not a manor house at all, nothing where people pass out because the balcony has been clotted with orange trees). (Oh, sorry: all that's left of the house today is a garden house.)
[* Specifically, I'm working on a scene where Flaubert spends four days, eight hours each day, reading aloud a novel he wrote to his friends, who hated Hated HATED the novel. I want to get a sense of average room sizes, number of rooms, etc.]
What I'd like are some resources — books, articles, sites — that would give me a sense of what the interiors of these kinds of houses would look like, and what it might have been like living in them.
I've emailed two Flaubert museums to ask for information, and I've done some Googling. Mostly what I find are Too Fancy houses, rather than comfortable houses that regular rich people might live in.
Hey everyone, I'm back for more military stuff. Still a fantasy army roughly modelled after the Napoleonic times, but I think this might be the question of language rather than of history.
What is the common command to start? As in, "I'm done explaining what I want you to do, now start doing it". I know French and Russian militaries have it, so there must be one in English too, but I can't for the life of me find it.
Stuff I tried: Google-translating exécutez (execute, not helpful) and выполнять (implement, not helpful). Googling "common military commands", "military command to start acting", "military order to begin", "military command execute", "exécutez command English", "military command implementation"
I found "carry on", but that seems to be naval only and besides more of "continue what you were doing before I interrupted". I also found "dismissed", but that seems to be more of "get out of my sight".
I'm looking for more of "get doing what I told you, now".