Non-medically attended miscarriage in young teenager, 1970s.

Time period: late 1970s Location: Western setting.

A 14 year old girl who is not very cluey wakes one night with extreme gut pains, then to her horror, a gush of blood. I'm talking puddle-on-the-mattress amount of blood - probably about 500mls. Collapse ) She didn't realise she was pregnant - the story includes a coercive older sibling and the girl not realising the consequences.

Research done: medical papers and publications about hidden teen pregnancies, giving birth with no medical attention, ditto miscarriage.

Engineering Degree - University entry, USA, at a bottom-end but still accredited University, 2019

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I understand a GPA of 2.50 is generally the lowest possible entry score for a degree, but my questions are two:

a) Could there be an even-lower entry score? 2.20 for instance?

b) Is there always a mathematical level requirement to be accepted for these engineering degrees? I ask from a place where getting the required "GPA" level is sufficient, even if there is no maths in it whatsoever (and you can imagine how badly that often turns out).
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Is there a technical term for artificial light diffusion on snowy nights?

If you’re sighted and have experienced a heavy nighttime snowstorm in an illuminated urban area, you know what I’m talking about: the sandwich of light between the snowy white ground and snowy white sky, infusing the landscape with the soft white light of a frosted light bulb—-sometimes enough to read by, certainly enough to see by. (It must be coming from the ambient artificial lighting; my personal experience is that snowy nights on back country roads are darkness manifest.)

This is a subcategory of skyglow (; I’ve come across “snowglow”, for light reflected from snow-covered ground ( but the article specifically discusses snowglow’s contribution to urban light pollution and interference with astronomical observation—-necessarily implying clear nights.

“Whiteout” overlaps with what I’m looking for, but specifically denotes reduced visibility; I get the impression that a whiteout need not be nocturnal or involve artificial light sources:

“Diffuse reflection” seems to cover it somewhat:

To repeat: what I have in mind is the reciprocal reflection/diffusion of light from sources within the space between the snowy sky and snowy ground.

Search terms:

“artificial light diffusion on snowy nights”
“diffuse light snow”
“diffuse reflection snow artificial light”

Maintaining Muscle Mass while Malnourished

I'm working on a character who is homeless and relies on stealing and cheating just to get by. Obviously, not having a steady/reliable source of food or income (in a small village nonetheless) means they're probably pretty malnourished (at least to the point where their ribs are somewhat visible). The problem comes with the fact that their weapon of choice is a bow and arrow, which I know requires a lot of upper-arm strength. My question is this: would it be possible for them to maintain enough muscle/strength to feasibly use a bow while malnourished? 

I tried several searches related to this topic, and read articles on WebMD and Mayo Clinic relating to malnutrition, but I couldn't find a single line anywhere specifically talking about whether or not one can maintain muscle mass while malnourished.

Also, the story is set in a fantasy world not our own, so there's not really a real-world time period with which to compare. Though- if this helps- there's not a lot of technology beyond simple things like watches, for example.

Norrell jsmn

Experience--texture of textile!

Regency romance idea. Wedding dresses

Having looked at various ones, I'm leaning towards muslin, but I have no experience of the fabric (I wear modern acrylic), and due to The Situation I can't wander into a department store and handle some.

Is it slippery, like silk? Soft? Itchy? Thin fluttery layers? Does it bunch up and crumple a lot in normal use? What happens if you spill tea on it?

I'm looking to write quite comically about someone wearing a fancy frock who has 0 experience of wearing fancy frocks.
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Resources: BBC and Yellowstone National Park audio libraries.

The BBC and Yellowstone National Park have both recently released extensive archives of sound effects into the public domain; you never know when you might have occasion to know the exact sound of a grizzly crunching bison bones, the klaxon of a Romanian trolleybus, a shot from an 1870 17-bore twin-barrel shotgun, or the moaning of a frozen lake as the ice reacts to temperature fluctuations:

Can someone go to prison without it becoming public knowledge?

Furthermore, can a criminal case ever be handled confidentially without news of their arrest being made public under a plea of guilt? I'm writing a story where a character, who committed multiple crimes including first-degree manslaughter in his teenage years, turns himself in at the age of 18. The setting of the story is Tokyo, Japan, present day, and the catch is that he was presumed dead until he pledged guilty. I'm wondering if there's a believable way for news of his arrest, conviction and sentence to remain strictly confidential instead of being made public (so that nobody else in the story is made aware that he's indeed alive until later on). I should also mention that the character used to be a public figure and the crimes he committed were crimes against the country in the form of a string of serial murders, but he was working as a hit man under someone else's thumb. If it helps, the story includes a Supernatural element, and the crimes the character committed took place in this "other-world," which could very well be a closely guarded Government secret. I'm wondering if my character could ask that his record be sealed as a condition for his guilty plea, or if, due to the highly sensitive subject matter surrounding the entire case, the government would want to keep the details strictly under wraps. That said, the character's crimes are severe, and considering they affect Japan as a whole in the story, I'm not certain if there's any realistic way I can write his sentencing off as something that's kept on the hush-hush? In simpler terms, I wanted to write this in a way that the character continues to remain presumed dead to those outside of the legal sphere that deal with his direct arrest.

I've been trying to look this up and coming up short. I've looked up various variations of this question on google ranging from "can a prisoner forgo a trial" to "can a prisoner request a private court case?" to "how plea bargains get made". I've looked at the article "Is a Plea Bargain Public Record?" on and the general specifics of the Japanese Judicial System on I even tried looking up "the nature of court cases that are closed off to the public" and "exceptions to the rule that states most legal proceedings should be public." I might be failing to word my questions correctly, but they feel very hyper-specific and difficult to pin down, which is why I couldn't find any exact answers to my question through research.

I really hope someone has an answer! Thank you.

Beverages in the Emirate of Cordoba

Hi everyone! I was researching whether tea was known in the Emirate of Cordoba, a Medieval Islamic kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, but found info that both tea and coffee came to Europe through Islamic lands much later. What were people drinking back then, though? I'd be grateful if you pointed out where I could read about it.
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Resource: an essay on experiencing hurricanes.

This comes courtesy of Florida resident mylordshesacactus on Tumblr; here are some excerpts:

Do not think for a moment that just because you’re “only” experiencing Cat 1 winds that this storm can’t kill your ass dead. Do not underestimate what the death throes of a dying god can do.

In hurricane-prone areas, the threat is felt year-round.

All the major intersections? Our stoplights aren’t hung on wires from wooden poles–those blow down too easily. They’re bolted to thick metal pipes, “hurricane-proof”. Major roadways that are above floodlines are labelled as evacuation routes.

Things like that.

(Remember–by the time a storm “makes landfall,” everything for miles around has been experiencing the storm for hours already. “Landfall” is when the EYE of the storm first hits land, not when the storm “arrives”.)

But hurricanes are…vast. Look up satellite footage of hurricanes. Really look at it. Look at how much sheer area they cover.

Most places do not experience landfall-level disaster. That’s why, when people evacuate–well, when residents evacuate, the tourists and recent transplants tend to panic harder–you’re basically always evacuating to someplace that will still have vanished under that mass of swirling clouds. Evacuation sites are still inside the hurricane, but wind speed, storm surge, etc–everything drops dramatically even a few miles from the eye.